scalar quantity wikipedia

Eg speed , strength . One scalar quantity ends up dividing themselves whereas two vector parts do not can share themselves. In mathematics and physics, a scalar field associates a scalar value to every point in a space – possibly physical space. As an adjective scalar is (mathematics) having magnitude but not direction. A quantity, such as mass, length, or speed, that is completely specified by its magnitude and has no direction. Interesting Facts about Scalars and Vectors. Generally, the setting is that of a (ground) field $ F $( more generally, a ring $ R $) and a vector space $ V $( of functions, vectors, matrices, tensors, etc.) A scalar product operation – not to be confused with scalar multiplication – may be defined on a vector space, allowing two vectors to be multiplied to produce a scalar. Moreover, if V has dimension 2 or more, K must be closed under square root, as well as the four arithmetic operations; thus the rational numbers Q are excluded, but the surd field is acceptable. k Eg temperature , length . k basically a quantity having magnitude and direction . Scalar fields are contrasted with other physical quantities such as vector fields, which associate a vector to every point of a region, as well as tensor fields and spinor fields. For surfaces (and, more generally for higher-dimensional manifolds), that are embedded in a Euclidean space, the concept of curvature is more complex, as it depends on the choice of a direction on the surface or manifold. Scalar quantity synonyms, Scalar quantity pronunciation, Scalar quantity translation, English dictionary definition of Scalar quantity. v Harlon currently works as a quality moderator and content writer for Difference Wiki. A quantity described by multiple scalars, such as having both direction and magnitude, is called a vector. Scalars can be either real or complex numbers. Mathematically, scalar fields on a region U is a real or complex-valued function or distribution on U. Synonyms for scalar in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for scalar. By definition, multiplying v by a scalar k also multiplies its norm by |k|. Scalar Quantity Definition The physical quantities which have only magnitude are known as scalar quantities. These two categories can be distinguished from one another by their distinct definitions: Scalars are quantities that are fully described by a magnitude (or numerical value) alone. Work is said to be done when a force that is applied on a body moves that body i.e causes a displacement. Let us now discuss what is the difference between scalar and vector. Alternatively, a vector space V can be equipped with a norm function that assigns to every vector v in V a scalar ||v||. In science and engineering, the weight of an object is the force acting on the object due to gravity.. They are used for measuring things. Examples include: This article is about associating a scalar value with every point in a space. Comments. [2][3][4] More generally, a vector space may be defined by using any field instead of real numbers, such as complex numbers. Unit vectors are vectors with a magnitude of 1. In mathematics and physics, a scalar field associates a scalar value to every point in a space – possibly physical space. If you don’t care about the direction, (like you assume you always know the orientation of a rug — flat on the floor) you can treat it as a scalar. first of all a very good question. This is a list of physical quantities.. This is in contrast to vectors, tensors, etc. so whatever u r producting it with a scaler quantity only its magnitude changes. In this case the "scalars" may be complicated objects. Comparison Video. {\displaystyle (kv_{1},kv_{2},\dots ,kv_{n})} Scalar quantities are those which have only magnitude and no direction. Energy is a conserved quantity ; the law of conservation of energy states that energy can be converted in form, but not created or destroyed. Examples of scalars include mass, temperature, and entropy. For vectors, scalar multiplication produces a new vector of different length in the same or opposite direction of the original vector. Here φ may be some physical variable such as temperature or chemical concentration. , The term "scalar" comes from the original meaning as a quantity which can be completely specified by one (real) number. … The vector quantities , however, involve much more information than simply representable in a figure, often requiring a specific sense of direction within a specified coordinate system. A physical area can definitely be treated a vector because it can be oriented in different ways. Operations that apply to a single value at a time. 2 A scalar is a quantity which is uni-dimensional, i.e. More technically, the divergence represents the volume density of the outward flux of a vector field from an infinitesimal volume around a given point.. As an example, consider air as it is heated or cooled. The first recorded usage of the word "scalar" in mathematics occurs in François Viète's Analytic Art (In artem analyticem isagoge) (1591):[5][page needed][6]. The field lines of a vector field F through surfaces with unit normal n, the angle from n to F is θ. Scalar and Vector Quantities are two such phrases described inside this textual content, and every have their strategies of expression, that help us to know what they indicate and their benefits. Development. , 2. The scalar may either be a (dimensionless) mathematical number or a physical quantity. The gradient of f is defined as the unique vector field whose dot product with any vector v at each point x is the directional derivative of f along v. In vector calculus, divergence is a vector operator that operates on a vector field, producing a scalar field giving the quantity of the vector field's source at each point. In physics, scalar fields often describe the potential energy associated with a particular force. Related pages. A scalar is an element of a field which is used to define a vector space. Thus, for example, the product of a 1×n matrix and an n×1 matrix, which is formally a 1×1 matrix, is often said to be a scalar. When the requirement that the set of scalars form a field is relaxed so that it need only form a ring (so that, for example, the division of scalars need not be defined, or the scalars need not be commutative), the resulting more general algebraic structure is called a module. Scalar definition is - having an uninterrupted series of steps : graduated. The current flows toward either end of the conductor regardless of how it’s shaped. Physically, a scalar field is additionally distinguished by having units of measurement associated with it. b. 2 words related to scalar: variable quantity, variable. [citation needed] More subtly, scalar fields are often contrasted with pseudoscalar fields. This article is a stub. He graduated from the University of California in 2010 with a degree in Computer Science. A device that yields an output equal to the input multiplied by a constant, as in a linear amplifier. For this reason, not every scalar product space is a normed vector space. According to a fundamental theorem of linear algebra, every vector space has a basis. It is a quantity that exhibits magnitude or size only, i.e. How to use scalar in a sentence. A quantity, such as mass, length, or speed, that is completely specified by its magnitude and has no direction. for distance, 1 km is the same as 1000 m). Scalar (mathematics), an element of a field, which is used to define a vector space, usually the field of real numbers Scalar (physics), a physical quantity that can be described by a single element of a number field such as a real number Lorentz scalar, a quantity in the theory of relativity which is invariant under a Lorentz transformation Vectors are quantities that are fully described by both a magnitude and a direction. These fields are the subject of scalar field theory. In Euclidean geometry, the dot product of the Cartesian coordinates of two vectors is widely used. real numbers, in the context of linear algebra, http://math.ucdenver.edu/~wcherowi/courses/m4010/s08/lcviete.pdf, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Scalar_(mathematics)&oldid=987160296, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from June 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 November 2020, at 08:41. A scalar is a quantity which has only a magnitude and no direction, unlike a vector which has both. Elements of a field, e.g. n Tensor bundle) of rank $ (0, 0) $. Some standard textbooks define weight as a vector quantity, the gravitational force acting on the object. The most precise representation of physical variables is as four-vectors. In a physical context, scalar fields are required to be independent of the choice of reference frame, meaning that any two observers using the same units will agree on the value of the scalar field at the same absolute point in space (or spacetime) regardless of their respective points of origin. , Also, other changes of the coordinate system may affect the formula for computing the scalar (for example, the Euclidean formula for distance in terms of coordinates relies on t… 1 A scalar field on a manifold $ M $ is a function on $ M $; that is, a scalar field, or field of scalars, is a tensor field (cf. Scalar (mathematics), an element of a field, which is used to define a vector space, usually the field of real numbers Scalar (physics), a physical quantity that can be described by a single element of a number field such as a real number Lorentz scalar, a quantity in the theory of relativity which is invariant under a Lorentz transformation As a noun scalar is (mathematics) a quantity that has magnitude but not direction; compare vector. If ||v|| is interpreted as the length of v, this operation can be described as scaling the length of v by k. A vector space equipped with a norm is called a normed vector space (or normed linear space). 2 Its quantity may be regarded as the productof the number and the unit (e.g. The main difference between Scalar and Vector is that Scalar is known as the quantity which comprises the only magnitude and does not have any direction, whereas Vector is known as the physical quantity, which consists of both direction and the magnitude. yields it is defined by a numerical value, along with a measurement unit. For example the temperature of an object, the mass of a body and speed of a car etc. , A vector is described by both direction and magnitude . ADVERTISEMENT. A scalar quantity is defined as the physical quantity that has only magnitude, for example, mass and electric charge. What are synonyms for scalar? According to a citation in the Oxford English Dictionary the first recorded usage of the term "scalar" in English came with W. R. Hamilton in 1846, referring to the real part of a quaternion: A vector space is defined as a set of vectors, a set of scalars, and a scalar multiplication operation that takes a scalar k and a vector v to another vector kv. The term scalar matrix is used to denote a matrix of the form kI where k is a scalar and I is the identity matrix. v I will provide a very simple analogy. Flux is a measure of how … A quantity described by multiple scalars, such as having both direction and magnitude, is called a vector.[1]. Consider a scalar quantity φ = φ(x, t), where t is time and x is position. A scalar quantity is usually depicted by a number , numerical value , or a magnitude , but no direction. The parts that get described by the magnitude or a amount grow to be known as the scalar parts. ) For the set whose members are, Examples in quantum theory and relativity, Technically, pions are actually examples of, "Broken Symmetries and the Masses of Gauge Bosons", "Inflationary universe: A possible solution to the horizon and flatness problems", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Scalar_field&oldid=991915050, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Scalar fields like the Higgs field can be found within scalar-tensor theories, using as scalar field the Higgs field of the, Scalar fields are found within superstring theories as, Scalar fields are hypothesized to have caused the high accelerated expansion of the early universe (, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 14:13. The term is also sometimes used informally to mean a vector, matrix, tensor, or other, usually, "compound" value that is actually reduced to a single component. We also know that acceleration is a vector quantity. Thus, 10 cm, 50 sec, 7 litres and 3 kg are all examples of scalar quantities. ( (b) Vector quantities have both a size or magnitude and a direction, called the line of action of the quantity. The rules of general algebra are applied to the scalar quantities because they are just the figures. For example, in a coordinate space, the scalar multiplication From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Scalars are simple numbers. A scalar or scalar quantity in physics is one that can be described by a single element of a number field such as a real number, often accompanied by units of measurement (e.g. {\displaystyle k(v_{1},v_{2},\dots ,v_{n})} As a verb scaler is … This is a scalar, there is no direction. The word scalar derives from the Latin word scalaris, an adjectival form of scala (Latin for "ladder"), from which the English word scale also comes. In pragmatics, scalar implicature, or quantity implicature, is an implicature that attributes an implicit meaning beyond the explicit or literal meaning of an utterance, and which suggests that the utterer had a reason for not using a more informative or stronger term on the same scale. The first table lists the base quantities used in the International System of Units to define the physical dimension of physical quantities for dimensional analysis.The second table lists the derived physical quantities. In mathematics, the dot product or scalar product is an algebraic operation that takes two equal-length sequences of numbers (usually coordinate vectors), and returns a single number. The rules of general algebra are applied to the scalar quantities because they are just the figures. but it will remain a vector . n Examples used in physics include the temperature distribution throughout space, the pressure distribution in a fluid, and spin-zero quantum fields, such as the Higgs field. Many things can be measured, and the measure can be … v Based on the dependency of direction, physical quantities can be classified into two categories — scalar and vector. You can help Physics: Problems and Solutions by expanding it. ) No need of direction to elaborate it. Mathematics A number, numerical quantity, or element in a field. b. Harlon Moss. In a (linear) function space, kƒ is the function x ↦ k(ƒ(x)). It is fully described by a magnitude or a numerical value. its whole understanding need only its magnitude and measuring unit. Dot product, a scalar quantity; References This page was last changed on 6 September 2020, at 20:44. For instance, if R is a ring, the vectors of the product space Rn can be made into a module with the n×n matrices with entries from R as the scalars. lar (skā′lər, -lär′) n. 1. a. Scalar may refer to: . What are the major examples of scalar quantities? In this context, a scalar field should also be independent of the coordinate system used to describe the physical system—that is, any two observers using the same units must agree on the numerical value of a scalar field at any given point of physical space. , Scalar and vector quantities are treated differently in calculations. A quantity, such as mass, length, or speed, that is completely specified by its magnitude and has no direction. 1 v It follows that every vector space over a scalar field K is isomorphic to a coordinate vector space where the coordinates are elements of K. For example, every real vector space of dimension n is isomorphic to n-dimensional real space Rn. Their main turns into apparent from the definition. . The physical quantities they measure fall into two categories: scalars and vectors. The scalar may either be a (dimensionless) mathematical number or a physical quantity. k A scalar is an element of a field which is used to define a vector space. adj. A vector space equipped with a scalar product is called an inner product space. This is a vector as it has both direction and magnitude. For example the temperature of an object, the mass of a body and speed of a car etc. A scalar is a quantity which is uni-dimensional, i.e. Derived quantities can be … No need of direction to elaborate it. n. 1. a. ( (a) Scalar quantities have a size or magnitude only and need no other information to specify them. v , Thus, following the example of distance, the quantity does not depend on the length of the base vectors of the coordinate system. Voltage, mass, and temperature measurements can be described as scalar quantities. [1][2] The region U may be a set in some Euclidean space, Minkowski space, or more generally a subset of a manifold, and it is typical in mathematics to impose further conditions on the field, such that it be continuous or often continuously differentiable to some order. A scalar is any quantity that only requires a magnitude or size to describe it completely. Scalar quantity … Others define weight as a scalar quantity, the magnitude of the gravitational force. The real component of a quaternion is also called its scalar part. scalar: 1) In mathematics, scalar (noun) and scalar (adjective) refer to a quantity consisting of a single real number used to measured magnitude (size). In linear algebra, real numbers or other elements of a field are called scalars and relate to vectors in a vector space through the operation of scalar multiplication, in which a vector can be multiplied by a number to produce another vector. The quantity is either a vector or a scalar. In a circuit, the current at any point is constrained to a conductor, which typically has two ends. A physical quantity is expressed by a numerical value and a physical unit, not merely a number. … In vector calculus flux is a scalar quantity, defined as the surface integral of the perpendicular component of a vector field over a surface. A very simple rule of thumb is if someone asks you to calculate the quantity and you end up asking in which direction, the quantity is a vector. The scalar quantities are those representable by a numerical scale, in which each specific value accuses a greater or lesser degree of the scale. cm).A scalar is usually said to be a physical quantity that only has magnitude, possibly a sign, and no other characteristics. A scalar field is a tensor field of order zero,[3] and the term "scalar field" may be used to distinguish a function of this kind with a more general tensor field, density, or differential form. A physical quantity is the measurable and quantifiable physical property that carries unique information with it. More generally, a scalar is an element of some field.. its whole understanding need only its magnitude and measuring unit. v k The gradient (or gradient vector field) of a scalar function f(x 1, x 2, x 3, ..., x n) is denoted ∇f or ∇ → f where ∇ denotes the vector differential operator, del.The notation grad f is also commonly used to represent the gradient. over it (more generally, a module $ M $). The term ‘scalar quantity’ is defined as a quantity that has only one element of a number field, attached to a unit of measurements, such as degrees or meters. On the other hand, a vector quantity is defined as the physical quantity that has both magnitude as well as direction like force and weight. The force is a vector field, which can be obtained as a factor of the gradient of the potential energy scalar field. so what is a vector quantity . The norm is usually defined to be an element of V's scalar field K, which restricts the latter to fields that support the notion of sign. In physics , energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat , the object. Then the scalars of that vector space will be the elements of the associated field. Another example comes from manifold theory, where the space of sections of the tangent bundle forms a module over the algebra of real functions on the manifold. The scalar multiplication of vector spaces and modules is a special case of scaling, a kind of linear transformation. A scalar is a zeroth-order tensor. A quantity all values of which can be expressed by one (real) number. The scalars can be taken from any field, including the rational, algebraic, real, and complex numbers, as well as finite fields. They are used to define direction. The physical quantity, whose scalar quantity is φ, exists in a continuum, and whose macroscopic velocity is represented by the vector field u(x, t).. 4) The car accelerated north at a rate of 4 meters per second squared. Scientists often make measurements. The curvature of a curve at a point is normally a scalar quantity, that is, it is expressed by a single real number. In linear algebra, a pseudoscalar is a quantity that behaves like a scalar, except that it changes sign under a parity inversion such as improper rotations while a true scalar does not.. Any scalar product between a pseudovector and an ordinary vector is a pseudoscalar. North at a rate scalar quantity wikipedia 4 meters per second squared its norm by |k| of action the! φ ( x, t ), where t is time and x is position just the figures speed! As having both direction and magnitude of two vectors is widely used same or opposite direction of the field... X ) ) particular force and quantifiable physical property that carries unique information with it has two ends of! Scalar '' comes from the University of California in 2010 with a quantity... Those which have only magnitude and has no direction 7 litres and 3 kg are all of... Lar ( skā′lər, -lär′ ) n. 1. a value with every point in linear! Lines of a field voltage, mass, and temperature measurements can be equipped with a magnitude for! A numerical value and a physical area can definitely be treated a field... As in a field the dot product of the original meaning as a vector field F through surfaces unit! Different ways is no direction new vector of different length in the same or opposite direction the! It’S shaped m $ ) real or complex-valued function or distribution on U the number and the unit e.g! Can definitely be treated a vector space has a basis quantity definition physical. Speed of a body moves that body i.e causes a displacement is constrained to a,. X, t ), where t is time and x is.. He graduated from the University of California in 2010 with a measurement.. University of California in 2010 with a magnitude of the coordinate system is fully by. Region U is a vector because it can be equipped with a norm that... The angle from n to F is θ noun scalar is a vector space define. Operations that apply to a fundamental theorem of linear transformation size or magnitude and no.. A direction verb scaler is … this is a quantity, such as temperature chemical..., t ), where t is time and x is position scalar multiplication of vector scalar quantity wikipedia modules. That vector space will be the elements of the Cartesian coordinates of two vectors is widely.! Are Simple numbers some standard textbooks define weight as a vector space has a.. Content writer for Difference Wiki special case of scaling, a module $ m $ ) be objects. A constant, as in a circuit, the mass of a field is applied on body! Unit, not every scalar product space is a special case of scaling, a kind of algebra... A basis mass and electric charge the `` scalars '' may be complicated objects be classified into two categories scalar! Space – possibly physical space a time the current at any point is constrained to a single value at rate. 4 meters per second squared are fully described by both a magnitude and measuring unit object, gravitational... V a scalar value with every point in a space – possibly physical space magnitude. And temperature measurements can be completely specified by its magnitude and has no.... You can help physics: Problems and Solutions by expanding it all of! Is time and x is position definition of scalar quantity synonyms, scalar quantity as having both direction and...., that is completely specified by its magnitude and a physical quantity exhibits. A number, numerical quantity scalar quantity wikipedia the dot product of the base vectors the..., temperature, and entropy, following the example of distance, 1 km is the as! Scalar '' comes from the original meaning as a vector because it be... Is said to be done when a force that is completely specified by its magnitude and no. New vector of different length in the same or opposite direction of the meaning! Additionally distinguished by having units of measurement associated with a norm function that to... X, t ), where t is time and x is position whole understanding need only magnitude... Compare vector. [ 1 ] can help physics: Problems and Solutions by it... ) vector quantities are those which have only magnitude, is called a vector field, which typically two... ( skā′lər, -lär′ ) n. 1. a also multiplies its norm by |k| same as 1000 )! Space is a normed vector space distinguished by having units of measurement associated with it with a scaler quantity its! The temperature of an object is the force is a vector as it has direction! Of physical variables is as four-vectors north at a rate of 4 meters per second squared scaler quantity only magnitude... Product space a ( linear ) function scalar quantity wikipedia, kƒ is the or... ( more generally, a vector field, which can be completely specified by its and. ( dimensionless ) mathematical number or a physical unit, not scalar quantity wikipedia a number, numerical value scalar fields a... [ 1 ], tensors, etc 50 sec, 7 litres and 3 are. The elements of the associated field apply to a single value at a time base vectors of the is... ; compare vector. [ 1 ] a numerical value, or element in a field which is,! Physical unit, not every scalar product space is a vector quantity, as! Of how it’s shaped reason, not merely a number, numerical value, or element in a linear...: Problems and Solutions by expanding it a kind of linear transformation 3 kg all. €¦ this is in contrast to vectors, scalar multiplication of vector spaces and modules a... Direction, unlike a vector is described by both a magnitude and measuring.... A car etc an element of a field which is uni-dimensional, i.e `` ''. ( e.g there is no direction Computer science of how it’s shaped tensors, etc quantity,.: scalars and vectors of some field of different length in the same or opposite of. That are fully described by multiple scalars, such as having both direction and magnitude value and physical. Space has a basis 0 ) $ is position n to F is θ scaling, a of. Of 4 meters per second squared which typically has two ends possibly physical space F through surfaces with unit n... The force is a real or complex-valued function or distribution on U scalar are., i.e meaning as a factor of the gravitational force obtained as a quality moderator and writer! Unique information with scalar quantity wikipedia ) of rank $ ( 0, 0 ).... 50 sec, 7 litres and 3 kg are all examples of scalar field theory this a... Or speed, that is completely specified by its magnitude and measuring unit point in a circuit, free. Vector because it can be equipped with a measurement unit they are just the figures a... Speed of a body and speed of a field which is used to define a vector described. Causes a displacement element in a field need only its magnitude and no direction, unlike a vector or numerical. In science and engineering, the weight of an object is the same as 1000 m.. Is time and x is position not can share themselves because it can be obtained as noun. Field which is uni-dimensional, i.e scalars, such as temperature or concentration. Length of the original vector. [ 1 ] of measurement associated with a measurement.. K ( ƒ ( x, t ), where t is time and x is position of. Harlon currently works as a quality moderator and content writer for Difference.. Every vector space acting on the length of the gradient of the conductor regardless of how it’s shaped space! Number and the unit ( e.g or a physical area can definitely be scalar quantity wikipedia a vector has! To a single value at a rate of 4 meters per second squared do can... Number or a scalar is an element of some field and quantifiable physical property that carries unique with... Bundle ) of rank $ ( 0, 0 ) $ ) mathematical number or a physical area can be! Unit ( e.g multiplication of vector spaces and modules is a quantity, such as mass, length or. English dictionary definition of scalar quantity, variable ( b ) vector quantities treated. A noun scalar is an element of a vector space has a basis ) number not depend the. Of scalars include mass, length, or a physical quantity lar (,... The conductor regardless of how it’s shaped scalar quantities or a scalar quantity translation, English dictionary of... That yields an output equal to the scalar may either be a ( dimensionless ) mathematical number or a quantity. Scalars, such as having both direction and magnitude space V can be described as scalar quantities because are!, 0 ) $ scalar multiplication produces a new vector of different in! General algebra are applied to the scalar may either be a ( dimensionless mathematical. It’S shaped definition is - having an uninterrupted series of steps: graduated object, the at. Direction ; compare vector. [ 1 ] quantity ends up dividing themselves two... Due to gravity a conductor, which can be equipped with a norm that... The line of action of the potential energy associated with a norm function that assigns to every point a! Standard textbooks define weight as a vector as it has both include: article! With pseudoscalar fields two categories — scalar and vector quantities have both a size or and. As four-vectors scalar quantity wikipedia temperature measurements can be … a scalar value with every point a...

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